I want an essay that has four paragraphs.the first paragraph would be a summary which including thesis statement which must be so good and it is kind of how you are going to judge the author or argue with him.the two and three paragraphs would be analysis for the article.the fourth paragraph would be conclusion.The summary and the analysis are based on the article which I attached. at least 500 words.Is it better to run outside or on a treadmill?
Runners have always had a view on whether treadmill running is easier than doing it
outdoors. Michael Mosley weighs up his options.
For those of us who rather optimistically made a New Year’s resolution to do a bit more exercise,
and rain
, or to go down to your local gym and work up a sweat on the treadmill, while surreptitiously
admiring your reflection in a giant mirror?
It’s not something I’ve really thought much about before, possibly because I’m not that crazy ahora
running, but it’s certainly a topic that divides running
enthusiasts, so what are the arguments, for and
Firstly, which of these approaches is likely to get you fitter? Those who are enthusiastic about
running outdoors claim it uses up more energy. The main reason is wind resistance, which you don’t
get a lot of when you are a gym rat. But fans of the gym say this is not necessarily true. In a study
conducted by Exeter University, Prof Andrew Jones took nine male runners and made them run
along a road, measuring their energy expenditure. Then
they got these volunteers to run at the same
speed on a treadmill, but on different inclines. What they found is that runners could adequately
compensate for the extra effort of running outdoors by setting the treadmill to a 1% gradient
It’s worth knowing that when you run on a treadmill you tend to overestimate the pace at which you
are going. A study carried out in Singapore which asked people to run outdoors and then match
their speed on a treadmill
, found that when people ran on a treadmill they went significantly slower,
even though they thought they were going just as fast. The scientists behind this particular study
suggest this is probably because when you are running indoors you don’t get the same visual cues.
Or as they put it
: “The unmatched perception of speed is likely due to the distortion of normal visual
inputs resulting from the discrepancy between observed and expected optic flow.”
Whatever the cause, it seems that when we run outside we unconsciously work harder.
If running outdoors edges indoors when it comes to work rate, which approach is safer? In the gym,
of course, you are unlikely to be hit by falling branches, slip on dog poo or trip over a kerb. But when
it comes to injuries there is a hazard which is commoner among treadmill runners – overuse injury
due to unvarying repetition.
When you are on a treadmill the tendency is to plug away, like a hamster on a wheel, doing the
same thing over and over again. For every mile you run your foot will hit the ground about 1,000
times. Repeating the same movement puts you at greater risk of joint or ligament damage. So if you
use a treadmill it’s a good idea to mix it up a bit by varying the speed and the incline. If you run
outside, particularly if you go off-road, there is inevitably going to be more variety. Each step will be
different from the one that went before, simply because you are running on an uneven and varied
Michael Mosley BBC
surface. Research suggests that this constant challenge not only strengthens the ligaments and
activates a greater variety of muscles, but also improves your sense of balance.
That said, the belt of a treadmill can be more forgiving than a hard pavement, which is important if
you are carrying an injury.
It seems intuitively obvious that running in the great outdoors puts you closer to nature and has to be
better than running in a confined space. But what’s the proof?
Well, a few years ago scientists from the University of Exeter made a serious effort to properly
evaluate the evidence and their conclusions were very clear.
Digging through the literature they found that exercising in natural environments, particularly in green
spaces, “was associated with greater feelings of revitalisation and positive engagement, decreases
in tension, confusion, anger and depression, and increased energy”.
They also found that people who exercised outdoors claimed to enjoy it more, find it more satisfying
and said they were more likely to do it again. Though whether they actually did is another matter.
One other advantage of exercising outdoors is that you’ve got a greater chance of being exposed to
sunshine and therefore topping up your vitamin D. (although in UK, at this time of year, that is not a
particularly convincing argument).
For me outdoor running has clear advantages. It’s far more varied and I have yet to convince my dog
that watching me on a treadmill is as much fun as running through the fields. But the best advice,
especially if you’re starting out, is to pick the kind of running that you enjoy and which you’re likely to
stick to. If that means heading to the nearest treadmill just remember to vary the speed and the

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