What type of reliability is being assessed in the
following example? 
A study will examine the effects of a fever reducing drug in Greece and
the United States. A thermometer that measures temperature with the
Fahrenheit scale will be used in the US part of the study and a different
thermometer that measures temperature with the Celsius scale will be used in
the Greek part of the study. The research team wants to make sure that error
isn’t introduced because they are using different thermometers.  Before the study, nurses simultaneously
take the temperature of 102 patients with the Celsius thermometer and the
Fahrenheit thermometer. A scale conversion is calculated and the measurements
from each thermometer are examined to see how closely correlated they
are.  _C___ 

Multiple Choice

the best answer and enter it in the blank.
color is the sky? 
A)  brown
B)  pink
C)  blue
D)  green

studies are conducted to compare the experiences of seniors living in
high-rise public housing to those of seniors living in townhouses with
subsidized rent. The first study interviews 40 seniors who have been in each
government program for at least 1 year, while the second randomly assigns 40
seniors to each program and interviews them after 1 year.
of the following is a true statement?
A)  The first study is an observational study,
while the second study is an experiment. 

B)  Both studies are considered observational
studies because of the time period involved.
C)  The first study is an experiment, while the
second is an observational study.
D)  Both studies are observational studies
because there are no control groups.
E)  Both studies are experiments.

of the following is a true statement about an experiment, but not a true
statement about an observational study?
A)  The cost of conducting it is prohibitive.
B)  Regression analysis is needed to properly
analyze the data after it is gathered.
C)  A cause-and-effect relationship can be
easily ascertained.
D)  Participants should be informed that they
are part of a study.
E)  Interim variables are more difficult to

Vitamin D is
found in many dietary sources such as fish, eggs and milk. However, vitamin D
supplements may be necessary for older people. In one research study
participants were randomly provided with either 50 or 100 grams of vitamin D
daily, and the total number of sinus headaches they had was noted. In a second
study, people filled out a questionnaire asking about the hours per week they
spent exercising and the number of sinus headaches they had during a six month
Which of the
following is a true statement?
A)  The first study provides weaker evidence than
the second study.
B)  The first study was an experiment without a
control group, while the second was an observational study.
C)  The second study has the strongest validity
and could suggest the need for future research.
D)  Both studies were observational studies.
E)  None of the above is a correct statement.
High blood
pressure affects 1 in 4 American adults. In one study on the effect of calcium
on blood pressure, 500 participants  who said
they were long-time calcium takers had their blood pressure compared with those
of 500 subjects who had never taken calcium. In a second study, 100 subjects
were randomly selected to be given calcium and 100 were selected to be given a
Which of the
following is a true statement?
A)  The first study establishes a precedent, while
the second provides little new information.
B)  Both studies would be costly to conduct.
C)  The first study was an observational study,
while the second was a controlled experiment.
D)  Both studies could not be conducted
E)  Each study was part controlled experiment and
part observational study. 

of the following are true statements? 
In an experiment a treatment is administered to one group of individuals to
note their response.
In an observational study, no attempt is made to manipulate or influence the variables of
Sample surveys are observational studies, not experiments. 
A)  I and II
B)  I, II, and III
C)  II and III
D)  I and III
E)  None of the above gives the complete set of
true responses.

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