Please respond to EC Discussion Question 2. Be prepared to conduct some
rhetorical analysis of the Climate folder readings. That is, as you read them, go
beyond reading them for content. Assess them rhetorically. What is each trying to
achieve, and how, rhetorically, does each set about achieving its aims? Please be
specific. EC Discussion Question 2: The rhetorical theorist Kenneth Burke (1966) claims that “much that we take as observation about ‘reality’ may be but the spinning out of possibilities implicit in out particular choice of terms” (p.46). Does this mean we cannot know “reality” outside of the words we use to describe it? What did Burke mean by this.Below is the link of the reading that will help the response.The response must be 200-300 words. No more no less.
The Essential Principles
of Climate Sciences
A Guide for Individuals and Communities
Second Version: March 2009
Climate changes
Throughout its history, Earth’s climate has varied,
reflecting the complex interactions and dependencies
of the solar, oceanic, terrestrial, atmospheric, and
living components that make up planet Earth’s
systems. For at least the last million years, our
world has experienced cycles of warming and cooling
that take approximately 100,000 years to complete.
Over the course of each cycle, global average
temperatures have fallen and then risen again by
about 9°F (5°C), each time taking Earth into an ice
age and then warming it again. This cycle is believed
associated with regular changes in Earth’s orbit
that alter the intensity of solar energy the planet
receives. Earth’s climate has also been influenced on
very long timescales by changes in ocean circulation
that result from plate tectonic movements. Earth’s
climate has changed abruptly at times, sometimes
as a result of slower natural processes such as
shifts in ocean circulation, sometimes due to sudden
events such as massive volcanic eruptions. Species
and ecosystems have either adapted to these past
climate variations or perished.
While global climate has been relatively stable
over the last 10,000 years—the span of human
civilization—regional variations in climate patterns
have influenced human history in profound ways,
playing an integral role in whether societies thrived
or failed. We now know that the opposite is also
true: human activities—burning fossil fuels and
deforesting large areas of land, for instance—have
had a profound influence on Earth’s climate. In its
2007 Fourth Assessment, the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that it had
“very high confidence that the global average net
effect of human activities since 1750 has been one
of warming.” The IPCC attributes humanity’s global
warming influence primarily to the increase in
three key heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere:
carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The
U.S. Climate Change Science Program published
findings in agreement with the IPCC report, stating
that “studies to detect climate change and attribute
its causes using patterns of observed temperature
change in space and time show clear evidence
of human influences on the climate system (due
to changes in greenhouse gases, aerosols, and
stratospheric ozone).”1
To protect fragile ecosystems and to build
sustainable communities that are resilient to
climate change—including extreme weather and
climate events—a climate-literate citizenry is
essential. This climate science literacy guide
identifies the essential principles and fundamental
concepts that individuals and communities should
understand about Earth’s climate system. Such
understanding improves our ability to make
decisions about activities that increase vulnerability
to the impacts of climate change and to take
precautionary steps in our lives and livelihoods that
would reduce those vulnerabilities.
1. Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding
and Reconciling Differences. Thomas R. Karl, Susan J. Hassol,
Christopher D. Miller, and William L. Murray, editors, 2006. A Report
by the Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global
Change Research, Washington, DC.

Climate change will bring economic and
environmental challenges as well as
opportunities, and citizens who have an
understanding of climate science will be better
prepared to respond to both.

Society needs citizens who understand the
climate system and know how to apply
that knowledge in their careers and in
their engagement as active members of
their communities.

Climate change will continue to be a significant
element of public discourse. Understanding
the essential principles of climate science will
enable all people to assess news stories and
contribute to their everyday conversations as
informed citizens.
Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your
influence on climate and climate’s influence on you
and society.
A climate-literate person:

understands the essential principles of Earth’s
climate system,

knows how to assess scientifically credible
information about climate,

communicates about climate and climate change
in a meaningful way, and

is able to make informed and responsible
decisions with regard to actions that may
affect climate.

During the 20th century, Earth’s globally
averaged surface temperature rose by
approximately 1.08°F (0.6°C). Additional
warming of more than 0.25°F (0.14°C) has
been measured since 2000. Though the total
increase may seem small, it likely represents an
extraordinarily rapid rate of change compared to
changes in the previous 10,000 years.
Over the 21st century, climate scientists expect
Earth’s temperature to continue increasing,
very likely more than it did during the 20th
century. Two anticipated results are rising
global sea level and increasing frequency and
intensity of heat waves, droughts, and floods.
These changes will affect almost every aspect of
human society, including economic prosperity,
human and environmental health, and
national security.
Scientific observations and climate model results
indicate that human activities are now the
primary cause of most of the ongoing increase in
Earth’s globally averaged surface temperature.
“Science, mathematics, and technology have a
profound impact on our individual lives and our
culture. They play a role in almost all human
endeavors, and they affect how we relate to one
another and the world around us. . . . Science
Literacy enables us to make sense of real-world
phenomena, informs our personal and social
decisions, and serves as a foundation for a lifetime
of learning.”
From the American Association for the Advancement
of Science, Atlas of Science Literacy, Volume 2,
Project 2061.
People who are climate science literate know
that climate science can inform our decisions
that improve quality of life. They have a basic
understanding of the climate system, including
the natural and human-caused factors that affect
it. Climate science literate individuals understand
how climate observations and records as well
as computer modeling contribute to scientific
knowledge about climate. They are aware of the
fundamental relationship between climate and
human life and the many ways in which climate has
always played a role in human health. They have the
ability to assess the validity of scientific arguments
about climate and to use that information to support
their decisions.
No single person is expected to understand
every detail about all of the fundamental climate
science literacy concepts. Full comprehension
of these interconnected concepts will require a
systems-thinking approach, meaning the ability to
understand complex interconnections among all of
the components of the climate system. Moreover, as
climate science progresses and as efforts to educate
the people about climate’s influence on them and
their influence on the climate system mature, public
understanding will continue to grow.
Climate is an ideal interdisciplinary theme for
lifelong learning about the scientific process and the
ways in which humans affect and are affected by the
Earth’s systems. This rich topic can be approached
at many levels, from comparing the daily weather
with long-term records to exploring abstract
representations of climate in computer models to
examining how climate change impacts human and
ecosystem health. Learners of all ages can use
data from their own experiments, data collected by
satellites and other observation systems, or records
from a range of physical, chemical, biological,
geographical, social, economic, and historical
sources to explore the impacts of climate and
potential adaptation and mitigation strategies.
The Peer Review Process
Source: Roger J. Braithwaite, The University of Manchester, UK
Science is an on-going process of making
observations and using evidence to test hypotheses.
As new ideas are developed and new data are
obtained, oftentimes enabled by new technologies,
our understanding evolves. The scientific community
uses a highly formalized version of peer review to
validate research results and our understanding
of their significance. Researchers describe their
experiments, results, and interpretations in
scientific manuscripts and submit them to a
scientific journal that specializes in their field of
science. Scientists who are experts in that field
serve as “referees” for the journal: they read the
manuscript carefully to judge the reliability of the
research design and check that the interpretations
are supported by the data. Based on the reviews,
journal editors may accept or reject manuscripts
or ask the authors to make revisions if the study
has insufficient data or unsound interpretations.
Through this process, only those concepts that
have been described through well-documented
research and subjected to the scrutiny of other
experts in the field become published papers in
science journals and accepted as current science
knowledge. Although peer review does not guarantee
that any particular published result is valid, it does
provide a high assurance that the work has been
carefully vetted for accuracy by informed experts
prior to publication. The overwhelming majority of
peer-reviewed papers about global climate change
acknowledge that human activities are substantially
contributing factors.
A meltwater stream on the Greenland Ice Sheet flows into the
ice through a tunnel called a moulin. About half of the loss
of Greenland’s ice mass flows into the North Atlantic Ocean
as melt water. Liquid water, which is denser than ice, can
penetrate through the ice sheet, lubricating the underside, and
also accelerate ice loss. Warmer temperatures cause melting
in the summer months, which leads to faster flow, drawing
more of the ice sheet down to warmer, lower altitudes.
Agricultural engineers
inspect a dry stream.
In the coming decades, scientists expect climate
change to have an increasing impact on human and
natural systems. In a warmer world, accessibility
to food, water, raw materials, and energy are likely
to change. Human health, biodiversity, economic
stability, and national security are also expected
to be affected by climate change. Climate model
projections suggest that negative effects of climate
change will significantly outweigh positive ones.
The nation’s ability to prepare for and adapt to new
conditions may be exceeded as the rate of climate
change increases.
Reducing our vulnerability to these impacts
depends not only upon our ability to understand
climate science and the implications of climate
change, but also upon our ability to integrate and
use that knowledge effectively. Changes in our
economy and infrastructure as well as individual
attitudes, societal values, and government policies
will be required to alter the current trajectory of
climate’s impact on human lives. The resolve of
individuals, communities, and countries to identify
and implement effective management strategies for
critical institutional and natural resources will be
necessary to ensure the stability of both human and
natural systems as temperatures rise.
This climate science literacy document focuses
primarily on the physical and biological science
aspects of climate and climate change. Yet as
nations and the international community seek
solutions to global climate change over the coming
decades, a more comprehensive, interdisciplinary
approach to climate literacy—one that includes
economic and social considerations—will play a vital
role in knowledgeable planning, decision making,
and governance. A new effort is in development
within the social sciences community to produce
a companion document that will address these
aspects of climate literacy. Together, these
documents will promote informed decision-making
and effective systems-level responses to climate
change that reflect a fundamental understanding
of climate science. It is imperative that these
responses to climate change embrace the following
guiding principle.
Source: Scott Bauer, USDA
Humans can take actions to reduce
climate change and its impacts.
Climate information can be used to reduce
vulnerabilities or enhance the resilience of
communities and ecosystems affected by
climate change. Continuing to improve scientific
understanding of the climate system and the
quality of reports to policy and decision-makers
is crucial.
Reducing human vulnerability to the impacts
of climate change depends not only upon
our ability to understand climate science,
but also upon our ability to integrate that
knowledge into human society. Decisions
that involve Earth’s climate must be made
with an understanding of the complex interconnections among the physical and biological
components of the Earth system as well as
the consequences of such decisions on social,
economic, and cultural systems.
The impacts of climate change may affect the
security of nations. Reduced availability of
water, food, and land can lead to competition
and conflict among humans, potentially
resulting in large groups of climate refugees.
Humans may be able to mitigate climate
change or lessen its severity by reducing
greenhouse gas concentrations through
processes that move carbon out of
the atmosphere or reduce greenhouse
gas emissions.
A combination of strategies is needed to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. The most immediate
strategy is conservation of oil, gas, and coal,
which we rely on as fuels for most of our
transportation, heating, cooling, agriculture,
and electricity. Short-term strategies involve
switching from carbon-intensive to renewable
energy sources, which also requires building
new infrastructure for alternative energy
sources. Long-term strategies involve
innovative research and a fundamental change
in the way humans use energy.
Humans can adapt to climate change by
reducing their vulnerability to its impacts.
Actions such as moving to higher ground to
avoid rising sea levels, planting new crops
that will thrive under new climate conditions,
or using new building technologies represent
adaptation strategies. Adaptation often requires
financial investment in new or enhanced
research, technology, and infrastructure.
Actions taken by individuals, communities,
states, and countries all influence climate.
Practices and policies followed in homes,
schools, businesses, and governments can
affect climate. Climate-related decisions made
by one generation can provide opportunities
as well as limit the range of possibilities open
to the next generation. Steps toward reducing
the impact of climate change may influence the
present generation by providing other benefits
such as improved public health infrastructure
and sustainable built environments.
Source: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image by Reto Stöckli (land surface, shallow water, clouds)
This spectacular “blue marble” image is the most detailed true-color image
of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations,
scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of
the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color
mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet.
Climate Science Literacy is
an understanding of
the climate’s influence
on you and society
and your influence
on climate
The Essential Principles
of Climate Science
Each essential principle is supported by fundamental
concepts comparable to those underlying the National
Science Education Standards (NSES) and the American
Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Benchmarks for Science Literacy.
The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’s climate system.
Sunlight reaching the Earth can heat the land,
ocean, and atmosphere. Some of that sunlight is
reflected back to space by the surface, clouds,
or ice. Much of the sunlight that reaches Earth is
absorbed and warms the planet.
When Earth emits the same amount of energy as
it absorbs, its energy budget is in balance, and its
average temperature remains stable.
The tilt of Earth’s axis relative to its orbit around the
Sun results in predictable changes in the duration
of daylight and the amount of sunlight received
at any latitude throughout a year. These changes
cause the annual cycle of seasons and associated
temperature changes.
Gradual changes in Earth’s rotation and orbit around
the Sun change the intensity of sunlight received in
our planet’s polar and equatorial regions. For at least
the last 1 million years, these changes occurred in
100,000-year cycles that produced ice ages and the
shorter warm periods between them.
A significant increase or decrease in the Sun’s
energy output would cause Earth to warm or cool.
Satellite measurements taken over the past 30 years
show that the Sun’s energy output has changed only
slightly and in both directions. These changes in the
Sun’s energy are thought to be too small to be the
cause of the recent warming observed on Earth.
Source: Modified from the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences’ “Global Warming: Facts & Our Future” 2004
The greenhouse effect is a natural
phenomenon whereby heat-trapping gases
in the atmosphere, primarily water vapor,
keep the Earth’s surface warm. Human
activities, primarily burning fossil fuels and
changing land cover patterns, are increasing
the concentrations of some of these gases,
amplifying the natural greenhouse effect.
Climate is regulated by
complex interactions
among components of
the Earth system.
Earth’s climate is influenced by interactions involving
the Sun, ocean, atmosphere, clouds, ice, land, and
life. Climate varies by region as a result of local
differences in these interactions.
Covering 70% of Earth’s surface, the ocean exerts
a major control on climate by dominating Earth’s
energy and water cycles. It has the capacity to
absorb large amounts of solar energy. Heat and
water vapor are redistributed globally through
density-driven ocean currents and atmospheric
circulation. Changes in ocean circulation caused by
tectonic movements or large influxes of fresh water
from melting polar ice can lead to significant and
even abrupt changes in climate, both locally and on
global scales.
The amount of solar energy absorbed or radiated
by Earth is modulated by the atmosphere and
depends on its composition. Greenhouse gases—
such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane—
occur naturally in small amounts and absorb and
release heat energy more efficiently than abundant
atmospheric gases like nitrogen and oxygen. Small
increases in carbon dioxide concentration have a
large effect on the climate system.
The abundance of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere is controlled by biogeochemical cycles
that continually move these components between
their ocean, land, life, and atmosphere reservoirs.
The abundance of carbon in the atmosphere is
reduced through seafloor accumulation of marine
sediments and accumulation of plant biomass and is
increased through deforestation and the burning of
fossil fuels as well as through other processes.
Airborne particulates, called “aerosols,” have a
complex effect on Earth’s energy balance: they can
cause both cooling, by reflecting incoming sunlight
back out to space, and warming, by absorbing and
releasing heat energy in the atmosphere. Small
solid and liquid particles can be lofted into the
atmosphere through a variety of natural and manmade processes, including volcanic eruptions, sea
spray, forest fires, and emissions generated through
human activities.
The interconnectedness of Earth’s systems means
that a significant change in any one component of
the climate system can influence the equilibrium of
the entire Earth system. Positive feedback loops
can amplify these effects and trigger abrupt changes
in the climate system. These complex interactions
may result in climate change that is more rapid
and on a larger scale than projected by current
climate models.
Source: Astronaut photograph ISS015-E- 10469, courtesy NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
Solar power drives Earth’s climate. Energy
from the Sun heats the surface, warms the
atmosphere, and powers the ocean currents.
Life on Earth depends
on, is shaped by, and
affects climate.
Individual organisms survive within specific ranges
of temperature, precipitation, humidity, and sunlight.
Organisms exposed to climate conditions outside their
normal range must adapt or migrate, or they will
The presence of small amounts of heat-trapping
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere warms Earth’s
surface, resulting in a planet that sustains liquid
water and life.
Changes in climate conditions can affect the health
and function of ecosystems and the survival of entire
species. The distribution patterns of fossils show
evidence of gradual as well as abrupt extinctions
related to climate change in the past.
A range of natural records shows that the last 10,000
years have been an unusually stable period in Earth’s
climate history. Modern human societies developed
during this time. The agricultural, economic, and
transportation systems we rely upon are vulnerable if
the climate changes significantly.
Life—including microbes, plants, and animals and
humans—is a major driver of the global carbon cycle
and can influence global climate by modifying the
chemical makeup of the atmosphere. The geologic
record shows that life has significantly altered the
atmosphere during Earth’s history.
Source: Steve Fisher
Kelp forests and their associated
communities of organisms live in cool
waters off the coast of California.
Climate varies over space and
time through both natural
and man-made processes.
Climate is determined by the long-term pattern
of temperature and precipitation averages and
extremes at a location. Climate descriptions can
refer to areas that are local, regional, or global in
extent. Climate can be described for different time
intervals, such as decades, years, seasons, months,
or specific dates of the year.
Climate is not the same thing as weather. Weather
is the minute-by-minute variable condition of the
atmosphere on a local scale. Climate is a conceptual
description of an area’s average weather conditions
and the extent to which those conditions vary over
long time intervals.
Climate change is a significant and persistent change
in an area’s average climate conditions or their
extremes. Seasonal variations and multi-year cycles
(for example, the El Niño Southern Oscillation) that
produce warm, cool, wet, or dry periods across
different regions are a natural part of climate
variability. They do not represent climate change.
Scientific observations indicate that global climate
has changed in the past, is changing now, and will
change in the future. The magnitude and direction of
this change is not the same at all locations on Earth.
Based on evidence from tree rings, other natural
records, and scientific observations made around the
world, Earth’s average temperature is now warmer
than it has been for at least the past 1,300 years.
Average temperatures have increased markedly
in the past 50 years, especially in the North Polar
Natural processes driving Earth’s long-term climate
variability do not explain the rapid climate change
observed in recent decades. The only explanation
that is consistent with all available evidence is that
human impacts are playing an increasing role in
climate change. Future changes in climate may be
rapid compared to historical changes.
Natural processes that remove carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere operate slowly when compared
to the processes that are now adding it to the
atmosphere. Thus, carbon dioxide introduced into
the atmosphere today may remain there for a
century or more. Other greenhouse gases, including
some created by humans, may remain in the
atmosphere for thousands of years.
Muir Glacier, August
1941, William O. Field
Source: National Snow and Ice Data Center, W. O. Field, B. F. Molnia
Muir Glacier, August
2004, Bruce F. Molnia
Our understanding of the climate system is
improved through observations, theoretical
studies, and modeling.
The components and processes of Earth’s climate
system are subject to the same physical laws as the
rest of the Universe. Therefore, the behavior of the
climate system can be understood and predicted
through careful, systematic study.
Environmental observations are the foundation for
understanding the climate system. From the bottom
of the ocean to the surface of the Sun, instruments
on weather stations, buoys, satellites, and other
platforms collect climate data. To learn about past
climates, scientists use natural records, such as tree
rings, ice cores, and sedimentary layers. Historical
observations, such as native knowledge and personal
journals, also document past climate change.
Observations, experiments, and theory are used to
construct and refine computer models that represent
the climate system and make predictions about its
future behavior. Results from these models lead to
better understanding of the linkages between the
atmosphere-ocean system and climate conditions
and inspire more observations and experiments. Over
time, this iterative process will result in more reliable
projections of future climate conditions.
Our understanding of climate differs in important
ways from our understanding of weather. Climate
scientists’ ability to predict climate patterns months,
years, or decades into the future is constrained
by different limitations than those faced by
meteorologists in forecasting weather days to weeks
into the future.1
Scientists have conducted extensive research on the
fundamental characteristics of the climate system and
their understanding will continue to improve. Current
climate change projections are reliable enough to help
humans evaluate potential decisions and actions in
response to climate change.
1. Based on “Climate Change: An Information Statement
of the American Meteorological Society,” 2007
Source: B. Longworth © 2008
A rosette device containing 36 seawater samples
is retrieved in the Southern Ocean. Seawater
samples from various depths are analyzed
to measure the ocean’s carbon balance.
Human activities
are impacting the
climate system.
The overwhelming consensus of scientific studies on
climate indicates that most of the observed increase
in global average temperatures since the latter part
of the 20th century is very likely due to human
activities, primarily from increases in greenhouse
gas concentrations resulting from the burning of
fossil fuels. 2
Emissions from the widespread burning of fossil
fuels since the start of the Industrial Revolution
have increased the concentration of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere. Because these gases can
remain in the atmosphere for hundreds of years
before being removed by natural processes, their
warming influence is projected to persist into the
next century.
Human activities have affected the land, oceans, and
atmosphere, and these changes have altered global
climate patterns. Burning fossil fuels, releasing
chemicals into the atmosphere, reducing the amount
of forest cover, and rapid expansion of farming,
development, and industrial activities are releasing
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and changing
the balance of the climate system.
Growing evidence shows that changes in many
physical and biological systems are linked to humancaused global warming.3 Some changes resulting
from human activities have decreased the capacity
of the environment to support various species and
have substantially reduced ecosystem biodiversity
and ecological resilience.
Scientists and economists predict that there will
be both positive and negative impacts from global
climate change. If warming exceeds 2 to 3°C (3.6 to
5.4°F) over the next century, the consequences of
the negative impacts are likely to be much greater
than the consequences of the positive impacts.
2. Based on IPCC, 2007: The Physical Science Basis:
Contribution of Working Group I
3. Based on IPCC, 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and
Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II
Source:: A. Palmer, 2008
Society relies heavily on energy
that is generated by burning fossil
fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas.
Climate change will have
consequences for the Earth
system and human lives.
Melting of ice sheets and glaciers, combined with the
thermal expansion of seawater as the oceans warm,
is causing sea level to rise. Seawater is beginning to
move onto low-lying land and to contaminate coastal
fresh water sources and beginning to submerge
coastal facilities and barrier islands. Sea-level rise
increases the risk of damage to homes and buildings
from storm surges such as those that accompany
Climate plays an important role in the global
distribution of freshwater resources. Changing
precipitation patterns and temperature conditions
will alter the distribution and availability of
freshwater resources, reducing reliable access to
water for many people and their crops. Winter
snowpack and mountain glaciers that provide water
for human use are declining as a result of global
Incidents of extreme weather are projected to
increase as a result of climate change. Many
locations will see a substantial increase in the
number of heat waves they experience per year
and a likely decrease in episodes of severe cold.
Precipitation events are expected to become less
frequent but more intense in many areas, and
droughts will be more frequent and severe in
areas where average precipitation is projected to
The chemistry of ocean water is changed by
absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere
is causing ocean water to become more acidic,
threatening the survival of shell-building marine
species and the entire food web of which they are a
Ecosystems on land and in the ocean have been
and will continue to be disturbed by climate change.
Animals, plants, bacteria, and viruses will migrate
to new areas with favorable climate conditions.
Infectious diseases and certain species will be able
to invade areas that they did not previously inhabit.
Human health and mortality rates will be affected
to different degrees in specific regions of the world
as a result of climate change. Although cold-related
deaths are predicted to decrease, other risks are
predicted to rise. The incidence and geographical
range of climate-sensitive infectious diseases—
such as malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne
diseases—will increase. Drought-reduced crop
yields, degraded air and water quality, and increased
hazards in coastal and low-lying areas will contribute
to unhealthy conditions, particularly for the most
vulnerable populations.3
Source: Iowa National Guard photo by Sgt. Chad D. Nelson
Iowa National Guard preparing to
put sandbags in place on a levee
in Kingston, Iowa, to protect
roughly 50,000 acres of farmland
threatened by flood waters.
Key Definitions
Weather The specific conditions of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, measured
in terms of variables that include temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity, air
pressure, and wind.
Weather Forecast A prediction about the specific atmospheric conditions expected for a
location in the short-term future (hours to days).
Climate The long-term average of conditions in the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets and
sea ice described by statistics, such as means and extremes.
Climate Forecast A prediction about average or extreme climate conditions for a region in
the long-term future (seasons to decades).
Climate Variability Natural changes in climate that fall within the normal range of extremes
for a particular region, as measured by temperature, precipitation, and frequency of events.
Drivers of climate variability include the El Niño Southern Oscillation and other phenomena.
Climate Change A significant and persistent change in the mean state of the climate or
its variability. Climate change occurs in response to changes in some aspect of Earth’s
environment: these include regular changes in Earth’s orbit about the sun, re-arrangement of
continents through plate tectonic motions, or anthropogenic modification of the atmosphere.
Global Warming The observed increase in average temperature near the Earth’s surface
and in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. In common usage, “global warming” often refers
to the warming that has occurred as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases
from human activities. Global warming is a type of climate change; it can also lead to other
changes in climate conditions, such as changes in precipitation patterns.
Climate System The matter, energy, and processes involved in interactions among Earth’s
atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and Earth-Sun interactions.
Likely, Very Likely, Extremely Likely, Virtually Certain These terms are used by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to indicate how probable it is that a
predicted outcome will occur in the climate system, according to expert judgment. A result
that is deemed “likely” to occur has a greater than 66% probability of occurring. A “very
likely” result has a greater than 90% probability. “Extremely likely” means greater than 95%
probability, and “virtually certain” means greater than 99% probability.
Mitigation Human interventions to reduce the sources of greenhouse gases or enhance the
sinks that remove them from the atmosphere.
Vulnerability The degree to which physical, biological, and socio-economic systems are
susceptible to and unable to cope with adverse impacts of climate change. 2
Adaptation Initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human
systems against actual or expected climate change effects.3
Fossil fuels Energy sources such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, which are derived from
living matter that existed during a previous geologic time period.
Feedback The process through which a system is controlled, changed, or modulated in
response to its own output. Positive feedback results in amplification of the system output;
negative feedback reduces the output of a system.
Carbon Cycle Circulation of carbon atoms through the Earth systems as a result of
photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide into complex organic compounds by plants,
which are consumed by other organisms, and return of the carbon to the atmosphere as
carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, decay of organisms, and combustion of fossil fuels.
1. Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding
and Reconciling Differences. Thomas R. Karl, Susan J. Hassol,
Christopher D. Miller, and William L. Murray, editors, 2006. A Report
by the Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global
Change Research, Washington, DC.
2. Based on IPCC, 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II
3. Based on IPCC, 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III
ABout this Guide
Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate
Science presents information that is deemed
important for individuals and communities to know
and understand about Earth’s climate, impacts of
climate change, and approaches to adaptation or
mitigation. Principles in the guide can serve as
discussion starters or launching points for scientific
inquiry. The guide aims to promote greater climate
science literacy by providing this educational
framework of principles and concepts. The guide
can also serve educators who teach climate science
as a way to meet content standards in their science
Development of the guide began at a workshop
sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) and the American
Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
Multiple science agencies, non-governmental
organizations, and numerous individuals also
contributed through extensive review and comment
periods. Discussion at the National Science
Foundation- and NOAA-sponsored Atmospheric
Sciences and Climate Literacy workshop contributed
substantially to the refinement of the document.
To download this guide and related documents,
U.S. Global Change Research Program /
Climate Change Science Program
1717 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Suire 250 Washington DC 20006 USA
+ (Voice) + (Fax)
Current Science and Educational Partners:
American Association for the
Advancement of Science Project 2061
National Geographic Education
American Meteorological Society
National Institute of Standards &
Association of Science-Technology
Bowman Global Change
Centers for Disease Control &
Challenger Center for Space
Science Education
Climate Literacy Network
Further information
For future revisions and changes
to this document or to see
documentation of the process used
to develop this brochure, please visit
In addition, further information
relating to climate literacy and climate
resources can be found at:
College of Exploration
Cooperative Institute for Research in
Environmental Sciences
Federation of Earth Science
Information Partners
Lawrence Hall of Science, University
of California, Berkeley
National Environmental Education
National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
National Science Teachers
North American Association For
Environmental Education
Sally Ride Science™
The GLOBE Program
The National Center for
Atmospheric Research
University Corporation for
Atmospheric Research
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Forest Service
For an up to date list of partners please refer to U.S Climate
Change Science Program at
This document has been reviewed by the following Federal agencies. Any opinions, findings,
and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s)
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Second Version: March 2009
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