Hello everyone, I have an Assignment for you today. This assignment must be DONE by Thursday, November 12, 2020, no later than 10 pm. By the way, I need this assignment to be PLAGIARISM FREE & a Spell Check when completed. Make sure you READ the instructions CAREFULLY. Now without further ado, the instructions to the assignments are below:
Instructions
Compare and Contrast
Compare and contrast politics and sports events or religion and sports events (i.e., opposing viewpoints). Using the CSU Online Library, locate two selections on sports and politics events or two selections on sports and religion events. Depending on the event you have chosen (sports/politics or sports/religion), ensure there are two opposing viewpoints (similarities and differences) to review. Write a two-page essay summarizing the piece and identifying the similarities and differences. Be sure to specifically address how the globalization of sports has affected the topic you choose (politics or religion). (The CSU articles will be below. Choose one to complete the assignment).
Below are some possible ideas to compare and contrast.

Who was involved?
What were the key points/arguments?
Were these points valid and/or logical?
How did politics/religion play a role?
What was the outcome?
Did the outcome involve issues of money and power?
How did this affect sports?
Did the decision lead to better management of sport or sport play? If so, in what way?
Which views do you support? Why?
Which views do you refute? Why?

Include the following parts in your paper.

Title page – Include the assignment title, Columbia Southern University, and your name.
Introduction – Provide a brief Introduction of your selections and the connection to this chapter’s topic.
Section comparing and contrasting first selection (Similarities/Differences)
Section comparing and contrasting second selection (Similarities/Differences)
Conclusion – Provide a brief conclusion wrapping up the elements of the selections and how they relate to the chapter topic
Reference page – Include a reference page that lists the sources in proper APA format. If you also used content from our textbook, be sure to include this as a source in your reference page, as well. It is important that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so he/she will be able to locate the article.

Your essay must be at least two pages in length, not counting title and reference pages. Follow APA Style when constructing this assignment, including a title page, and in-text citations and references for all sources that are used.
By the way, I several attachments below. The first attachment is a study guide. The next two attachments are Power Points going over Chapter 13 & Chapter 15 for this unit. Lastly, are CSU articles which you will CHOOSE from to complete this assignment. Be sure to use the resources below. Remember NO PLAGIARISM & I need will need a PLAGIARISM REPORT upon completion.SOC 3301, Sociology of Sport 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

7. Explain how the commercialization of sports has influenced and contributed to changes in status,
money, and authority.
7.1 Compare and contrast the impact of money and power in sports and the influential role they

play involving politics and sports or religion and sports.

8. Investigate the globalization of sports.
8.1 Discuss the impact that globalization of sports has had on sport management ideologies.

Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

7.1
Unit Lesson
Chapter 13, pp. 406–421, 426–435
Unit VI Essay

8.1
Unit Lesson
Chapter 15, pp. 480–492, 494–508
Unit VI Essay

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 13: Sports and Politics: How Do Governments and Global Political Processes Influence Sports?, pp.
406–421, 426–435

Chapter 15: Sports and Religions: Is It a Promising Combination?, pp. 480–492, 494–508

Unit Lesson

As we delve into this unit, we will discuss two hot and debatable topics, politics and religion and how they
affect and influence sports. Some people may not even associate these two topics with sports. However, they
have long been connected and in some instances, control sport processes. Let’s look at politics and sports
first.

On November 27, 2007, the Miami Dolphins were scheduled to play the Pittsburgh Steelers on Monday Night
Football. The start of the game was delayed because of storms and lightning. To avoid further delay in the
evening’s broadcast, a decision was made to begin the game without the traditional National Anthem
(“Steelers win mud wrestling battle,” 3-0, 2007). While there is no law or rule requiring the playing or singing
of the Star Spangled Banner before the start of any public function, the National Football League and teams
weathered a backlash from the public. How many professional football games have started without the
National Anthem or Pledge of Allegiance since that time? Politics has an interesting way of weaving into
various aspects of our sports. In this unit, we will take a broad look at the role politics plays in sport.

When we discuss politics, two separate but interrelated words come to mind—power and authority. When a
person or organization possesses power, it means that they have the ability to influence, persuade, and
control others. Authority is the ability to exercise the right to utilize that power to control others. For example, if
a college student wants to play a sport, the NCAA has the power to control how that college student plays that
sport (as far as rules, guidelines, etc.). The coach is the authority figure and has the authority to ensure that
the NCAA rules are being followed properly.

UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE

Politics and Religion in Sports

SOC 3301, Sociology of Sport 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Politics involves the governance of people and the administrSports in Society:

Issues and Controversies

Chapter 15

Sports and Religions:

Is It a Promising Combination?

The combination of

religion and sport is

especially common among

Christian athletes in the

United States

Religions: A definition

. . . integrated and socially shared beliefs and rituals

that people accept on faith and use as a source
of meaning, guidance, and transcendence.

 Religious beliefs and rituals link people’s lives with a
supernatural realm or a divinity.

 Religions and ideologies are similar, although ideologies
are linked with the secular, here-and-now, material
world.

Depending on conditions, religion and

religious beliefs can lead to

 Powerful forms of

group unity

 A spirit of love and
acceptance

 Commitment to
prevailing norms

 Acceptance of systems
of power

 Devastating group

conflict

Moral judgments and
condemnation

 Rejection of
prevailing norms

 Rejection of systems
of power

or

Religious beliefs and rituals

. . . are always connected to a sacred and

supernatural realm.

 This connection is based on faith, which is

the foundation of all religions.

 When a religion is challenged, so is the

faith of believers.

The sacred versus the secular

The Secular

Objects/activities

connected with the
material world

 Stadiums

 Locker room

 Warm-up drills

 Half-time talk

The Sacred

Objects/activities

connected with the
supernatural

 Churches

 Sacristy

 Prayers

 Sermons

Muslim and Hindu

believers don’t

distinguish between

the sacred and

secular as do most

Christians.

Are sports a form of religion? (I)

Both sport and religion
 Have places for communal gatherings

 Emerge out of a disciplined quest for perfection

 Are controlled through structured organizations

and hierarchical authority

 Have events that celebrate widely shared values

 Have rituals before, during, and after major

events

(continued)

Are sports a form of religion? (II)

Both sport and religion
 Have heroes and legends about heroic

accomplishments

 Evoke intense emotions and give meaning to

people’s lives

 Can be used to distract attention from important

social, political, and economic issues, thereby

becoming like opiates

“Essentialists” focus on differences

between sport and religion

SPORT

 Tied to secular

 Goal = here-and-now victories

 Rooted in fact

 Involves competition

 Rituals/events = instrumental and
goal oriented

 Based on a spirit of achievement
and conquest

RELIGION

 Tied to sacred

 Goal = transcendence

 Rooted in faith

 Involves cooperation

 Rituals/services = expressive and

process oriented

 Based on a spirit of humility and

love

People adapt images of their gods to fit their values; these

statues “muscularize” Christ for young Christian athletes.

Photos by Jay Coakley

Is there a difference between the ways that Christians and

agnostics play sports? If not, why Chapter 13

Sports and Politics:

How Do Governments and

Global Political Processes Influence

Sports?

Sport in Society:

Issues and Controversies

Photo by Lara Killick

When people say that politics has no place in sports, they usually mean that
there is no place in sports for politics that differ from their own.

Definitions (I)

 Politics: Processes of organizing social
power and making decisions that affect
the lives of people in a social world

 Governments: Formal organizations with
the power to make and enforce rules in a
particular territory or collection of people

Definitions (II)

 Power: The ability to influence people and
achieve goals even in the face of opposition
from others

 Authority: A form of power that comes with a
recognized and legitimate status or office in
a government, an organization, or an
established set of relationships

Reasons for connections between

government and sports (I)

1. Safeguard the public order

2. Insure fairness and protect human rights

3. Maintain health and fitness

4. Promote the prestige and power of a
group, community, or nation

(continued)

Reasons for connections between

government and sports (II)

5. Promote a sense of identity, belonging,
and unity among citizens

6. Reproduce values consistent with
dominant ideologies in society

7. Increase support for political leaders
and government

8. Promote economic development

1. Safeguard public order

Governments make rules about:

What sports are legal or illegal

How sports should be organized to protect
rights and well-being

Who has the right to play sports

Where sports may be played

Who can use public facilities and when
they can use them

To protect public well-being, skateboarding is banned in
many public areas, such as Philadelphia’s “Love Park.”

Photo by Jay Coakley

A place for everything,
and everything in its place in this London park

Photo by Jay Coakley

2. Insure fairness and

protect human rights

 Governments may intervene in sports when
citizens are systematically excluded or subjected
to discrimination in sports.

 Title IX law in the U.S. made gender discrimination in
any activity sponsored by schools receiving financial
aid from the federal government.

 The U.S. Department of Education warned schools
that they were not providing equal sport participation
opportunities for students with a disability, and
provided administrators guidelines for how to do so.

3. Maintain health and fitness

 Past government support was based on beliefs that
 Playing sports improves fitness.

 Fitness improves health.

 Good health reduces medical costs.

 Recent government support often takes into
account research showing that
 Illness is related to environmental factors more than

worker fitness.

 Competitive sports have few benefits for productivity.

 Concerns about sport performance may increase athletes’
demands for health care.

4. Promote Journal of Business Behavioral Sciences

Vol. 27, No. 1; Spring 2015

3

GOLD RUSH GAMES IN POLITICS, ECONOMICS AND

BUSINESS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON VIOLENCE IN SPORTS

Keynote Speech presented at the

American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences

Harrah’s Hotel and Casino Las Vegas, Nevada

February 21, 2015

C. Kenneth Meyer

Drake University

“Win if you can, lose if you must, but always cheat. It

ain’t cheatin’ unless you get caught…those are American

rules, the American way!”

-Governor Jesse Ventura,

Minnesota

“It is hard to imagine an ethical situation in public

affairs becoming as bad as during the late Roman Empire.

There, politics was viewed as being so costly that it was

impossible to get enough people to fill the empire’s local

offices, and so the Emperor Maxentius had to make

government service a punishment for certain crimes.”

Brunk and Meyer, 2000

It is an honor to be here this evening and be asked to deliver the

Keynote Address for the 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Business

and Behavioral Sciences. I have presented many papers at the ASBBS conferences

over the years and this is a conference that I attend because it is my first choice

among all others that are relevant to my teaching, research, and publication

interests. Besides the congeniality of participants, I find that Wali Mondal has

been able to draw competent scholars from around the world in the many business,

accounting, management, economics and behavioral sciences, and provide a

scholarly venue in which truly “trandisciplinary” research and visions can be

realized and future research paradigms realized. It is essential that we move from

multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research to a new model of knowledge

acquisition, exploration, and understanding.

Over the years, principally my research has been quantitatively

and empirically based, so I am daring to venture into the philosophical arena

tonight and suggest a theoretical perspective that, hopefully, will help explain what

is happening in business, government, economics and sports.

I begin with Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz asking Glenda, the good

witch, “Where do I begin?” Glenda responds, “My dear, most people begin at the

beginning!” And so in the beginning, my initial interest in violence was triggered

when I wrote a number of articles on violence directed against law enforcement

officers. I was a novice then, in l973, and as I freely acknowledged then and now,

Meyer

4

I had a great deal to learn if I was ever to understand the nature of violence in

American society. Later, I co-authored “Sports, Politics and Other Gold Rush

Games: Why Bad Buys Increasingly are the Winners,” Public Integrity, and it

began to candle an interest in violence and, especially, a type of game called a gold

rush. Captured by the transdisciplinay nature that undergirds the holistiJournal of Sport Management, 2014,28, 590-591
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2014-0148
© 201 4 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Game Over: How Politics Has Turned
the Sports World Upside Down
By Dave Zirin. Published in 2013 by The New Press,
New York (256 pp„ $18.95).

Reviewed by Wesley D. Yourth, Assistant Director o f
Athletics and EdD Candidate, University o f the Pacific,
Stockton, CA

“[ H] istory indicates that sports is never just a spectacle—
that it has potential to tap into sentiments for social
change” (p. 10). With this statement, Dave Zirin, author
of Game Over: How Politics Has Turned the Sports World
Upside Down, sets the stage for a telling account of how
sport is intimately intertwined in the social and political
fabric of our world. From professional sports leagues to
intercollegiate athletics and the rise of privatized youth
programs, the sport industry at times has the auspices of
being solely motivated by profit as a big-business, enter­
tainment industry. While in many respects this might be
true, Zirin examines the sporting landscape from a deeper
perspective, shedding light on how sport and the sports
media have the power to bring social justice issues to the
forefront of political debate. With this book, Zirin aims
to raise the awareness and give critical analysis to hot-
button topics around the themes of democracy, capitalism,
globalization, immigration, gender, and racism through
the lens of sport. In doing so, Zirin takes some very strong
stances on the issues mentioned above, some of which are
likely to spark an emotional response for some readers,
because they may disagree with his particular stance.

In some respects, Zirin’s argument resonates with the
work of renowned curriculum theorist Wayne Au (2012),
for whom knowledge and epistemology are a matter
of perspective, the struggle over whose understanding
counts and the politics that understanding carries with
it. With this emphasis on perspectives, Au (2012) recalls
what R. W. Connell (1994) refers to as curricular justice
and the “standpoint of the least advantaged” (p. 60),
where issues are viewed through the lens of those who
have the least hegemonic control. That is, economic issues
are discussed from the standpoint of the poor, gender
issues are discussed from the standpoint of women, and
so forth. Without conscious ties to the theoretical stances
of Au (2012) and Connell (1994), Zirin emphasizes the
standpoint of the least advantaged, attempting to provide
a perspective not often discussed within sport manage­
ment and sport pedagogy curriculum as institutions of
higher education aim to prepare future leaders within
sport enterprise.

As sport management programs and intercollegiate
athletic programs sit under the umbrella of higher edu­

cation, coaches, athletic leaders, and academicians have
the opportunity to take a proactive approach in providing
opportunities that challenge students to question their
viewpoints. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Association for Public Opinion Research.
All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

SPORTS FANDOM AND POLITICAL ATTITUDES

EMILY A. THORSON*
MICHAEL SERAZIO

Abstract A majority of Americans identify as sports fans, and sports
broadcasts attract substantially larger audiences than news on both
broadcast and cable television. But despite the outsize role of sports
in American life, we know little about how—or whether—sports fan-
dom is related to political attitudes. This paper draws on a representa-
tive survey to examine (1) the association between sports fandom and
political opinions; and (2) opposition to the “politicization” of sports.
Republicans and Democrats are equally likely to follow sports closely.
However, sports fandom is positively associated with individualistic
attributions for economic success and support for the US military. In
addition, conservatives are more likely to resist the intrusion of partisan
politics into sports.

In the summer of 2016, San Francisco Forty-Niners quarterback Colin
Kaepernick chose not to stand for the singing of the US national anthem in
order to spotlight racial injustice and police violence. Other professional and
amateur athletes soon joined the protest, setting off a national conversation
about the appropriateness of Kaepernick’s actions (Eligon and Cacciola 2016).
Many on both the left and the right who disapproved of players’ participation
in the protest invoked an enduring cliché: that sports and politics do not and
should not mix (Zirin 2013).

In this paper, we argue that despite what some fans and commentators
might wish to believe, sports and politics are closely intertwined. A nationally

Emily A. Thorson is an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at Syracuse
University, Syracuse, NY, USA. Michael Serazio is an assistant professor in the Department of
Communication at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA. The authors thank the editors and
anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful feedback. This work was supported by a $16,350 grant
from Boston College’s Research across Departments and Schools Program awarded to Emily
Thorson and Michael Serazio. *Address correspondence to Emily Thorson, Syracuse University,
Department of Political Science, 100 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY, 13244, USA; email: ethorson@
gmail.com.

doi:10.1093/poq/nfy018 Advance Access publication May 25, 2018

Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 2, Summer 2018, pp. 391–403

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/poq/article-abstract/82/2/391/5004804
by Adam Ellsworth, Adam Ellsworth
on 02 July 2018

mailto:ethorson@gmail.com?subject=

mailto:ethorson@gmail.com?subject=

representative survey investigated the relationship between sports fandom and
political attitudes. While many may view sports as an escape from social and
economic problems (HuizThird World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 1263–1276, 2004

Major sports events, image projection
and the problems of ‘semi-periphery’:
a case study of the 1996 South Asia
Cricket World Cup

PAUL DIMEO & JOYCE KAY

ABSTRACT This paper explores the response of the international press to the
co-hosting of the 1996 Cricket World Cup by India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The
event had a troubled background: the shift of power within cricket towards the
subcontinent and the consequential commercialisation of the sport were causing
some dissension among traditionalists. At the same time there was some
instability in South Asian politics, especially between India and Pakistan and
because of the civil war in Sri Lanka. While these issues overshadowed the
event, some aspects of its organisation were unsuccessful, leading to some
negative press coverage. It is argued here, however, that the problems faced by
South Asian countries in trying to use this sports event to promote a positive
image were further exacerbated by underlying stereotypes and criticisms of
South Asian cultures. As such, the paper addresses several important themes
relating to major sports events and ‘semi-peripheral’ countries.

The 1996 Cricket World Cup (CWC) was hosted jointly by India, Pakistan and
Sri Lanka, three countries that enjoy international success in cricket, and where
the sport has a massive and emotional following among large sections of the
population. Social elites want to be associated with it, ordinary fans feel
passionately about it, players of all backgrounds can become national heroes,
and there is strong financial support through the media and commercial sponsor-
ship. A joint venture in hosting can help ‘semi-peripheral’ countries overcome
some of the organisational and economic disadvantages they may face when
competing with ‘developed’ countries for events. However, as with examples in
other contexts,1 the partnership approach may introduce another set of tensions
and challenges as the organising committee try to manage expectations, facili-
ties, security, transport and supporters across national borders. In the case of the
1996 CWC this already burdensome aspect of event management was further
compounded by the ongoing political tensions between Pakistan and India,
communal tensions in India and the civil war within Sri Lanka. If this was not
enough for the international media to mercilessly pick apart, the traditionalists

Paul Dimeo and Joyce Kay are both in the Department of Sports Studies, University of Stirling, Room 3A45,
Cottrell Building, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. Email: joyce.kay@stir.ac.uk.

ISSN 0143-6597 print/ISSN 1360-2241 online/04/071263-14 © 2004 Third World Quarterly
DOI: 10.1080/014365904200281267 1263

PAUL DIMEO & JOYCE KAY

within cricket circles were critical of South Asian commercialism and anxious
that the old values of sportsmanship were being corroded by corruption,
ball-tampering, verbal abuse, spectator misbehaviour, political interveI n t e r n a t � o n a l J o u r n a l o f M a n a g e m e n t C a s e s

�00 �01

I n t e r n a t � o n a l J o u r n a l o f M a n a g e m e n t C a s e s

Nat�onal Health Serv�ce (2009) Know your l�m�ts
[�nternet] www.knowyourl�m�ts.co.uk [accessed
23rd January 2009]

Ra�str�ck, D., Hodgsen, R. & R�tson, B. (1999)
Tackl�ng Alcohol Together: The ev�dence base
for a UK alcohol pol�cy London: Free Assoc�at�on
Books

Rehm J, Room R, Monte�ro M, Gmel G, Graham K,
Rehn N, Sempos CT, Jern�gan D. (2003) Alcohol
as a R�sk Factor for Global Burden of D�sease.

european addiction research 2003; 9:157-164.

wojewódzka K. Pol�cj� w Poznan�u (2009)
Government Inst�tut�on [�nternet] http://www.
w�elkopolska.pol�cja.gov.pl [accessed 31st January
2009]

World Health Organisation (2004) Global Status
report On alcohol 2004 available via www.who.
�nt

world Health Organ�sat�on (2002) world Health
Report Reduc�ng R�sks – Promot�ng Healthy L�ves
Ava�lable v�a www.who.�nt

POLICY, POLITICS AND EVENTS: A
CASE STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA’S

2010 FIFA wORLD CUP™: MANAGING
INTERNATIONAL SPORTS EVENTS IN
SUSTAINABLE POLITICAL CONTEXT

jO-aNSie VaN Wyk
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA (UNISA), PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA

DIMITRI TASSIOPOULOS
wALTER SISULU UNIVERSITY, BUFFALO CITY, SOUTH AFRICA

Abstract

Governments, according to Mason (2008) and
Tassiopoulos (2005) are frequently referred to as
the public sector of the events industry. The role of
the public sector however in many countries has
what seems, at face value, to be contradictory.
Governments not only try to regulate events but
also have a role in the marketing of events.

On 15 May 2004, South Africa was announced as
the winner of the bid to host the 2010 FIFA World
Cup™, a decade after the country’s first democratic
elections. During the bidding process leading up
this announcement, the benefits of hosting such
a mega event were argued. Apart from branding
it as an ‘African Cup’, in line with the then South
African President, Thabo Mbeki’s notion of an
‘Africa Renaissance’ and pan-African solidarity
and integration. A second argument focused on
the economic benefits of hosting the event.

The vision of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, according
to 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa (2008): “will
seek to strengthen the African and South African
image, promote new partnerships with the world as
we stage a unique and memorable event that will
inspire us to drive our collective determination to
be significant global players in all fields of human
endeavour”.

This case study follows an eclectic approach,
which applies the dimensions and variables of
sustainability and impact presented by Vanclay
(2002; 2003; 2004), Gursoy, Kim and Uysal (2003),

Vancouver 2010 and ASTS (2008), and Getz (2007).
For South Africa, like many developing countries,
development is of critical importance and an
important instrument to undo the socio-economic
legacy of apartheid. An event such as theSport Management Review, 2008,11, 225-251
© 2008 SMAANZ

Policy, Politics and Path Dependency:
Sport Development in Australia and Finland

Mick Green and Shane Collins
Loughborough University

KEYWORDS : sport development, elite sport development, Sport for All,
path dependency

Sport development as a public policy priority has historically been on the
periphery of governments’ political agendas. This is not the case in the
early twenty-first century however. Over the past decade, in nations as
diverse as Canada, China, Germany, Norway, Poland, Singapore and the
United Kingdom, public policies for sport development-related activity
have increased in salience. This article reviews and analyses national sport
development policy (across the mass-elite sport spectrum) in Australia and
Finland; two countries with quite distinct political, cultural and sporting
backgrounds. The analysis explores whether a path dependency approach
can help towards a better understanding of sport development activity
in each country. Our conclusions suggest that Australia (elite sport) and
Finland (Sport for All) have remained on quite specific sport development
pathways with little deviation, despite a few programs created in Australia
to increase the levels of sport participation for targeted groups such as
school children, women and indigenous Australians.

Historically, government interest in sport as an area of public policy could be
characterised as little more than a passing interest with intermittent and variable
levels of intervention. However, over the past decade at least, m nations as diverse
as Canada, China, Germany, Norway, Poland, Singapore and the United Kingdom
(UK), public policies for sport development-related activity have increased in
salience (see Bergsgard, Houlihan, Mangset, N0dland, & Rommetvedt, 2007; De
Bosscher, Bingham, Shibli, van Bottenburg, & De Knop, 2008; Green & Houlihan,
2005; Houlihan & Green, 2008). While the expansion of government interest in sport
has followed somewhat different paths, in many countries sport and government have
been inextricably linked across a diverse range of policy issues including health.

The authors are with the Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy, School of Sport and
Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, UK, LE113TU. E-mail for Mick Green:
m.j.green@lboro.ac.uk

226 Green and Collins

social inclusion, community development, education and the achievement of elite
sporting success (Houlihan, 1997). The nature of government intervention in sport
has also been broad and wide-ranging with growing state regulatory activity (such
as the licensing of coaches, control of doping, control of the sale of broadcasting
rights for sports events and licensing of sport clubs), increasing levels of funding,
rising numbers of cities bidding to host the summer Olympic Games and growing
intemational support for the World Anti-Doping Code (Houlihan, 2005).

Against this backdrop of the expanding political salience




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