Please respond to the information described below: I need at least 200 words citations and reference,please no plagiarism. According to Render, Stair, & Hanna (2015), “the study of waiting lines, called queuing theory, is one of the oldest and most widely used quantitative analysis techniques. Waiting lines are an everyday occurrence, affecting people shopping for groceries, buying gasoline, making a bank deposit, or waiting on the telephone for the first available airline reservationist to answer.” There are three basic parts for this process; they are arrivals, service, and actually waiting in a line. We see examples of this every time we go to the store to buying something.The significance of waiting line costs is to find a happy medium in order to maintain customer satisfaction and to allow a lower operating cost. One may notice large retailers such as Wal-Mart having thirty different checkout lines, but only two are open. Most of the time this has a negative effect on customer service because no one feels they need to stand in line for thirty minutes when there are only two cashiers working. A good front line manager would call for more lines to be opened if they have people available. That is when you hear the announcement for “back-up cashiers to the front please.” This helps to save on overhead because the employees are working in a different area of the store and can be called when needed. So, this serves as a due purpose employee who the company will get more of their money’s worth, plus help keep customer service high.The previous paragraph should have addressed customer service, because without a happy customer, the product will not get sold. Beside the normal patient customer you have the balking customer who just refuses to wait in a long line and the reneging customer who enters the line but becomes impatient and leaves the queue. The arrival of the customers can be random or scheduled, so if your business is scheduling people it is important to keep the wait to a minimum to keep customer satisfaction higher. Random arrivals cannot be controlled in many cases and add to a new calculation of how many customer service employees to maintain. Most of the, time this can be predicted by the time of the year, or certain events causing the customers to need your services.As far as service characteristics one will study the configuration of the service system and the pattern of service times. The configuration can be a single-channel system, which is one server for one function; a multichannel system, which are several servers for that same single function. There is also a single-phase system for a customer to gain service from one station then leaves. This is like going to a fast food restaurant to order your meal. The person taking your order also brings you your food. In a multiphase system you can place your order in one location, go to the next to pay and then to the next to pick up your food. Reference: Render, B., Stair, R.M., Jr., & Hanna, M.E. (2015).Quantitative Analysis for Management(12th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780133507331
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