Resources: The University Library or the Electronic Reserve ReadingsFind an article in the University Library that contains a research study in the functional area of your own job or a functional area you desire to be a part of someday.*****Attached is the electronic reserve reading that I will use for this research.****  The document is attached…Write a 700- to 1,050-word summary:Describe the business research process followed in the study in the article. Identify the research problem and the research method used. Discuss how the research is solving the problem within the chosen functional area. Identify other potential applications using business research within this functional area or related areas.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your Assignment.If you have any questions please send me a message.journal_of_business_communication_1968_trewatha_17_24.pdfWRITING RESEARCH STUDIES IN
of Alabama
Research has many
ing business
A great deal has been written
about methodology in the social
sciences but little about scientific research in business specifically. In this paper the authors
Dr. Robert L. Trewatha is an
Associate Professor of Management in the School of Commerce
and Business Administration at
the University of Alabama. He
has taught at the University of
Arkansas and Centenary College, Shreveport, Louisiana. He
received his A.B. in economics
Drury College in Springfield, Missouri and M.B.A. and
Ph.D. from the University of

Arkansas. His current research
and writing are in the area of
labor and manpower problems.
Herodotus, in his book History,
noted by Cohen and Nagel,i was
interested in why the Nile overflowed its banks in Egypt. Thus
William A. Holliday is Associate Professor of Management
at the University of Alabama.
He received his doctorate and
taught at the University of
Texas. His undergraduate degree is in Electrical Engineering, which he received at the
University of Wyoming. Dr.
Holliday’s fields of interest are
Industrial Management, Quantitative Methods in Business,
and Operations Research.
istrators make more meaningful
and factually correct decisions.
Managers may be interested in
basic information about the interrelationships of environmental or
systems factors, a description of
the historical development of events, or a comparison of the
progress of similar events; but
whatever the purpose of research,
a problem must exist in order to
justify an investigation of phenomena within the environment.
outline to help structure business research.
and the
managers and admin-
the behavior of the Nile was more
than a given fact; it presented a
&dquoproblem&dquo that could be solved
only by finding
nection (cause-and-effect relationship) between the periodic inundation of the Nile Valley and other
facts, such as the average rainfall
of the year.
Morris R. Cohen and Ernest
An Introduction to Logic and
pp. 197-200.
Method, Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, 1934,
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can proceed unless some problem is felt
practical or theoretical situation. The problem guides
inquiry, therefore,
to exist in
the search for some order or &dquobinding thread&dquo among the facts
and implies that some satisfactory level or degree of accomplishment is perceived to exist in terms of the problem to be solved.
For example, a scientific reason for the inundation of the Nile
Valley could not be determined until someone first recognized
that the inundation made navigation and agriculture most difficult and wasted many natural resources (a problem demanding
There are many kinds of research investigation, but the implication is that the research emanates from and is designed to help
solve problems. The very nature of research, then, refers to a
systematic investigation and examination of a problem area to
discover new information and knowledge, establish or test the
appropriateness of postulated new relationships, or verify existing, generally accepted knowledge. Within the area of business
administration, the scientific method must be used as fully as
possible if problems are to be solved for the purposes of generalizing from limited observations and extending, correcting, or
verifying knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of a theory or in the practice of an art.=2

This paper presents the concept that when one undertakes a
research study he must have perceived through some experience
the existence of a problem and possibly a problem whose solution
has a bearing on the solution of related problems. Sensitivity to
problems, where others perceive no difficulties, is one mark of a
researcher. Research is the use of serendipity in a problemsolving process in which answers based on effective factual data
and logical reasoning are obtained. In addition, the study and
practice of business administration can become &dquoscientific&dquo in
nature only when there is problem-related research conducted
on a scientific basis.
Research studies may take
the theoretical (descriptive)
Encyclopedia of
the Social
of two
possible approaches the practical (cause
13, Macmillan, New York, 1934,
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and effect) approach.&dquo The type of approach used, however,
does not affect the validity of the scientific element of the research. It should be noted that research in business administration, regardless of the qualitative or quantitative aspect of the
study, will be scientific when verifiable facts are discovered,
applied, and interpreted in light of existing problems.
Research, then, is an outgrowth of perceived gaps or incongruities in prevailing concepts and beliefs that become doubtful
during or after alterations of a familiar, established environment. As a result, research, as in any scientific investigation,
must begin with a problem and aim at an ordered state connecting what may seem to be unrelated facts.
Many requirements have been established to determine when
research is scientific rather than a maze of value judgments and
generalizations. Some of the more general and relevant requirements
A concept
practice must be validated
upon its truth
The implication in this proposition is that ethical assumptions
not valid in the role of science since they cannot be proved
or disproved. In the development of a body of knowledge in business administration, one is not concerned with whether or not it
is ethical to reach certain organizational objectives, but rather
under what conditions and how the objectives may be reached.
In other words, a science of business administration is not concerned with the ethical value of objectives, but in determining
what organizational practices are the most useful and have the
mcst applicability for types of organizational structures in different situations in reaching stated goals. A science, therefore,
is concerned with explaining the how-never the why and the
wherefore of phenomena.
Empirical tests must be capable of
other times and other places.
3 Herbert A. Simon has made the same distinction that is used here in terms of
two kinds of sciences. See Administrave Behavior, The Free Press, New York,
1966, pp. 248-253.
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The major consideration of this proposition is the distinction
between the natural and the social sciences. activities such as
business administration which are associated with so many
variables that can never be duplicated in exactly the same way
in experimental environments cannot qualify as a science in the
same sense as a physical science. Even though the human variables in the social sciences cannot remain constant, this does
not imply that valid factual relationships in business administration cannot be established on a scientific basis. Simon suggests that the social scientists must include in the research study
a statement of the variables that note the knowledge and experience of the persons (variables) whose behavior the research
purports to described4
An adequately stated problem
with the subject matter.
requires familiarity
Before undertaking a research study, one must be able to
determine, on the basis of previous knowledge, certain elements
in the subject matter that are significant and relevant.
Research must
suggested explanation
from the problem to
solution of the problem.
The development of such explanations is referred to as the
formulation of relevant hypotheses. Business administrators
accept this proposition in their decision-making process by
listing alternative solutions to stated problems as a means to
direct their analyses toward an order among the facts. (no attempt is made in this paper to suggest the formal conditions a
satisfactory hypothesis
fulfill.) 5
summarizes the four above propositions by stating
a scientific, theoretical framework are
that it is public, not private; is systematic, not random; does not
allow prejudices to enter; and is continuously tested not by one
case, but by many-6
that the requirements of
p. 251.
For an excellent discussion of this
pp. 201-202.
Argyris, Personality
Cohen and Nagel, op. cit.,
Organization, Harper
1957, p. 19.
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Scientific researchers attempt to develop some order or cosmos
from a problem or area of difficulty. Their purpose is to logically
derive all of the known results from a few basic facts and phenomena that can be accepted as true for use by researchers,
businessmen, and laymen. Research standards, then, must be
used if managers and administrators are to obtain research data
that can be useful for business-policy formulation, decision
making, and human relations.
The significant lack of research in current writings today is
highlighted by Coe and ~’einstock~ in a recent study of editorial
policies and standards of academic and professional journals.
They found that a frequently mentioned reason for the rejection
of manuscripts by journals was the inadequacy of research.
In addition, insignificance, superficiality, and poor writing of
articles were also noted as major reasons for rejection.
Application of science to business administration through
research implies adherence to the scientific method. The steps
that must be followed in this method of solving problems are
presented in different ways by different authors;8 but basically,
the steps are:

statement of the
the difficulty that
is to be solved.
Review the literature about the problem area and discuss
the problem with informed sources and experts in the
field. (At this point, the factors that have a bearing on
the problem
thoroughly investigated.)
Arrive at a statement of
solution to the problem.
or a
7 Robert K. Coe and Irwin
Weinstock, “Publication Policies of Major Business
Journals,” The Southern Journal of Business, University of Georgia, Athens,
Georgia, January 1968, pp. 7-9.
8 For
example, see Robert D. Hay, Written Communications for Business Administration, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1965, p. 254, and George
R. Terry, Principles of Management, Richard D. Irwin, Homewood, Illinois,
1964, pp. 96-98.
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Collect secondary and primary (experimental) data and
carefully organize and classify all relevant information.
Analyze the data, as related to the problem and hypothesis, by interpreting existing causal relationships.
Set forth the findings, conclusions, and recommendations that depend upon the correlation and degree of
causal relationships.
Follow up to determine the
validity of the findings.
of the solution and the
Generally, the scientific method as noted above provides an
excellent framework for a business research project. However,
a more positive, adaptive outline to help structure business research includes:


Statement of the Problem-A clear, concise statement of
the problem should be set forth. Once the problem is defined the writer has a basis for a clear understanding of
the research that results in more efficient use of time and
money. Within this section, a statement of the hypothesis
or a tentative solution or conclusion to the problem should
be presented.
Significance of the Problem-The importance and value
of investigating and solving the problem are highlighted in
this section. The reason the problem is of current interest
and its impact upon business administrators are included.
Purpose of ,the Study-The purpose of the study shows
what is attempted in the report in terms of alleviating or
solving the problem. When the purpose is clearly stated,
the researcher
determine what must be done in a
the data from which conclusions can be drawn and recommendations made.
logical sequence-that is, describe, analyze, and
Scope of the Study-The scope of the study sets forth the
parameters or boundaries of the study. In other words,
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this section describes the range or limits within which the
subject is discussed. If specific terms used in the study
require defining, this section is appropriate for this purpose.
Sources of Data a?id Method of the Study-The sources of
data give the reader a description of how the information
was obtained.
The method of the study presents the approach through which research on the subject was conducted. Both the sources of data and the method of the
study allow the reader to evaluate the reliability, validity,
and credibility of the entire research project.
Limitations o f the Study-Limitations to the study in
terms of data and method are mentioned in this section.
Often the limitations may imply a restatement of scope;
however, redundancy in this section of the study is often
of value.
Plan of Presentation-This section is an outline of the
text of the report. Generally, this is a description of the
succeeding chapters that relates how the chapters are
integrated into the entire report.
T ext of the Study-The analysis of the factors and the
findings of the study as related to the problem and purpose
of the research are included in the text of the study. In
general, this section includes the analytical, descriptive,
and evaluative materials related to the topic.
Conclusions and Recommendations-The conclusions and
recommendations section may include a summary of the
major findings in addition to the conclusions drawn from
these findings. Recommendations for actions to be taken
or recommendations of further research with suggested
approaches may also be stated in this section.
This outline is intended to be broad so that flexibility will be
achieved to encompass the wide variety of research activities
undertaken in business administration. It should be recognized,
however, that the above elements are essential if research is to be
scientific and help add to a systematized body of knowledge and
accepted understanding of general truths of business administration.
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This paper emphasizes that true research must be problem
oriented. In addition, if business administration is to become
more scientific, research must be conducted on the basis of the
scientific method. Business administration will not become a
science in the same sense as the physical sciences; however, this
does not imply that research activities in business should be any
less scientific in approach than the physical sciences.
One of the major conclusions derived from this discussion is
that both students and academicians in business administration
should be as scientific as possible in their writing of research
papers so that all efforts in the field are directed toward developing a systematized body of knowledge and accepted general
truths. If this is not achieved, the time and money costs of the
research are virtually wasted in terms of the development of the
writer as a problem solver; and the field of business administration proliferates with meaningless generalizations and value
judgments. By becoming conscious of the value of a science of
business administration, researchers in business will become
more oriented toward scientific research. This will allow the field
to develop valid principles and laws and credible general statements that are meaningful to administrators in performing the
management functions.
< &dquo , 24 Downloaded from at Apollo Group - UOP on February 12, 2016 Purchase answer to see full attachment

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