this is the feedback part that i usually add with the other part. i realized i didn’t include it in the recent post i had for you. I need this before midnight though.. so like before monday.. It is due sunday 1155pm eastern timejust like the others, here is the topic–After reading pp. 1-188 of “Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug” please discuss the emergence of the coca leaf as a cultural staple to a global commodity 1550-1910.just need to further discussion for two people… 250 words min EACH with apa reference..odum_response.docxsymons_response.docxAfter reading pp. 1-188 of “Andean Cocaine: The Making of a
Global Drug” please discuss the emergence of the coca leaf as a
cultural staple to a global commodity 1550-1910.
The coca leaf has been used as a commodity amongst
highland indigenous people the Andes region of Peru for thousands
of years. Some estimate that coca has been used for more than
20,000 years. To these indigenous people, coca has been a part of
life and the use has been traditionally passed on from generation to
generation for centuries. For these people, coca is an energy
supplement, medicine and part of social interactions. The
involvement of Europeans, changed coca from simply being an
indigenous tradition to coca as a global commodity.
During the early Spanish colonial era of Peru, coca was
initially banned by the Catholic missionaries, who viewed it
negatively. In the 1600’s coca was traded regionally and was quite
profitable. Gootenburg stated that by 1600, the coca trade to Potosi
alone was worth more than five hundred thousand pesos a year
(Gootenburg, 2008). One issue during the early years was that coca
was difficult to export because by the time it a shipped from Peru
to Europe, it would often go rotten.
By the early 1800’s coca began to become more popular,
after several European scientists began to study the plant and
became interested in the health benefits.
In the mid 1800’s European scientists began experimenting
with the alkaloids of the coca leaf, which finally resulted in being
able to isolate cocaine from the coca leaf using chemicals. Cocaine
became a quite different drug and was much more powerful than
the coca leaf in its natural state. Cocaine was quickly marketed in
the medical field and was viewed as a miraculous new medical
Coca and cocaine quickly increased as global exports to
Europe, the United States and around the world. Many Europeans
migrated to Peru to take advantage of the coca business.
Gootenburg pointed out that by 1880, America was the largest
consumer of coca and cocaine and remains so today. Gootensburg
described America’s passion for cocaine as “coca mania”
(Gootenburg, 2008). The United States government became
involved in arranging the procurement of cocaine from Peru and
secured transportation routes.
By the early 1900’s, coca and cocaine spread rapidly and
were used for much more than medical use. Coca and cocaine were
used widely recreationally. A popular soft drink Coca Cola,
actually had coca in each can. The mass cocaine consumption in
the United States became quite noticeable and health and social
problems began to affect American society. In 1905, the United
States government began passing laws to control cocaine and then
during the next decade, cocaine became fully illegal. The United
States then became the lead in international prohibition of cocaine.
The rest of the world lagged behind the United States and
continued to use cocaine for decades. Peru viewed cocaine as their
national commodity and continued to legally produced coca and
cocaine well into the 1940s.
Today, cocaine remains a global commodity on the black
market and is heavily produced and trafficked worldwide illegally.
The drug is trafficked worldwide and is quite profitable.
Gootenberg, P. (2008). Andean cocaine: The making of a global
drug. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
The Coca plant is a traditional plant said to have several mineral nutrients of
varied compounds and essential oils critical to human health in the early
Andean society. The coca leaf has been brewed for tea, and people have
been chewing it for many centuries in the Andean region since it due to the
beneficial nutrients to human health. Traditionally, coca is chewed and an
individual keeps chewed coca leaves and saliva in the mouth and cocaine is
extracted from the leaves through an alkaline substance (Gootenberg,
2008). Coca substance, when chewed, is crucial in suppressing fatigue,
hunger, as well as pain. Several people in the Andean region used coca as
tea, and it is considered as a sacred plant among the Andean people and
culture. The use of coca is widely spread along the Andean Amazon region
as its flour is used as a food supplement.
According to Gootenberg (2008), the Coca leaf had a spiritual importance
and remains to be an important plant among many people in Andean
region. Coca leaves were used to give thanks and make offerings to the
Andean gods for what they said were blessings. People in the farming
communities used to gather before starting any work and share coca of
different forms, cigarette, chewing, or drinking as tea. It is a sign of paying
homage to the ancestors and gods of earth, and the owner was required to
bury some coca on the ground as a sign sharing with ancestors. Coca leaves
further were offered to gods of earth for better lives and rites of passage like
birth, marriage, as well as death, it was also used to symbolize unity and
togetherness in the Andean society.
Indigenous people in the Andean region use coca plant for spiritual
protection and social interaction. It is valued as a plant that develops a
group identity and hence better coherence in the society aimed at promoting
better relationships. Chewing coca was regarded as a ceremonial practice
that required etiquette and a way of celebrating people’s togetherness and
business. The Coca plant was used as a form of currency in the Andean
region, because thousand of Andean people used it. The Coca leaf was also
used as a form of cultural solidarity and identity against colonial
domination. The plant played a crucial role in social interaction and had
significant religious value in the Andean communities (Gootenberg, 2008).
The Coca leaf was discovered more than 4,000 years in the Andean
region. The plant had cultural significance as aforementioned and brought
about cultural identity and understanding. The Coca leaf in the form of flour
is used as a food additive and can be used in medicine to cure several
diseases in the body (Gootenberg, 2008). The Coca plant plays a critical
role in the society such as increased health status and better living conditions
among the Andean people. However, coca faced several challenges and bans
as a result of earlier investigations by scientists. The Coca leaf has cocaine
stimulant that is responsible for faster pulse rate causing heart attacks and
chest pain. Many people in The Andes were affected mentally from the
overuse of the plant; coca was blamed for causing increased brain sensitivity
seizures. There is a likelihood of someone dying while using coca leaves
mixed with alcohol to create intensified euphoria. Although its use has been
banned for several years since 1961, several people in Andean society still
use it as a stimulant and for cultural values (Gootenberg, 2008).
Have a great evening everyone.
Gootenberg, P. (2008). Andean Cocaine: The making of a global drug.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
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