Utilizing the information you compiled for your literature review paper MyPaper.docx, and the feedback you received from your instructor about the literature review, prepare a 10-15 minute Power Point presentation on your topic, summarizing the key points and conclusions. Be sure to direct this presentation to an audience in the community. For example, if your paper pertained to a topic in developmental psychology, direct your presentation toward parents, or a parenting center. If your topic pertained to substance abuse, direct it toward a community service agency which may use this information for educating teens or parents about preventing drug use, or current clients about treatments and facilities available. Please state in your presentation the specific audience toward whom your presentation is aimed. Include a reference page in APA format, as well as speaker notes and an audio file with your presentation.Your slides should provide answers to the following questions: What was your topic?What question did you hope to answer by completing this literature review paper? Explain the practical implications of the conclusions of the literature review and the audience to which they are directed.Given the results of your literature review, what is/are the prevailing argument(s)? In other words, which of those is supported by the existing evidence? Be sure to include full coverage of the arguments, including strengths and weaknesses of each of them, supported by your findings from reviewing the relevant articles.Did the researchers consider multicultural factors in their studies? If not, what factors may be involved? What multicultural factors should future studies include?What ethical issues are related to your topic and/or discussed in the studies you reviewed?How do the conclusions of your literature review relate to the various specialization areas in psychology? Tie them to as many as apply from the following areas: biological, cognitive, developmental, social, personality theory, psychopathology, and applied psychology.How can the conclusions of your literature review inform the population towards whom your presentation is directed? How can they apply this information to their daily lives? What advice or ‘take home message’ can you provide to your audience based on the research you reviewed?What research question could you ask in order to further develop this area of study?Why is your research question important and relevant to the current work being done on your topic?Your presentation should also follow these guidelines:It should be approximately 10-15 minutes in length.It should be clear, concise, and professional.  Writing should be free of spelling and grammatical errors; it should conform to current APA style (including any in-text citations).It should include graphs, tables, figures, or images illustrating your ideas.There should be a final slide listing references in current APA style.The bulk of the text should be placed in the Notes pages of each slide. Keep the amount of text on the slide, itself, to a minimum.You should record an audio file of your oral presentation. You should also type the text of the speech you would give while showing these slides to an audience should be typed into the Notes area.  If you are unable to use the audio feature, the Notes text will suffice.You can refer to the Power Point tips document provided in the Doc Sharing section of the course.Submit your presentation to the M5: Assignment 1 Dropbox by Monday, October 19, 2015.Assignment 1 Grading CriteriaMaximum PointsDescribes topic and explains the practical implications of the conclusions of the literature review with clarity and detail.Describes the audience to which the presentation is directed.20Revises the literature review based on feedback from the instructor.Presentation of information is clearly focused on the specific audience.Explains the prevailing argument(s), including their strengths and weaknesses, supported by findings from relevant articles.Synthesizes key points established in and through the literature review.40Elaborates on multicultural factors relevant to the topic and to the studies reviewed.Discusses how the findings can be extended to a more diverse population or additional multicultural factors that should be included in future studies.40Discusses relevant ethical issues related to the topic and to the studies reviewed.Describes how they were or could be addressed in the research.20Relates the conclusions of the literature review to at least two specialization areas in psychology.40Applies the conclusions from the literature review to specific populations or issues.40Provides well-reasoned conclusions, and pointed towards areas for future research.Provides suggestions for future work that are appropriate and have an applied focus.36Introduction has an opening, provides come background information, and states the topic.Transitions between slides are present.16Design of presentation (i.e. background, pictures, text etc.) is clear, appropriate for the assignment, balanced and compliments both the writing and speaking throughout the presentation.16Any written portion (including writing on the slides and in notes) follows conventions of spelling and grammar throughout.  Errors are infrequent and do not interfere with comprehension.24Using APA format, accurately paraphrased, quoted, and cited in many spots throughout when appropriate or called for. Errors present are somewhat minor.8Total:300Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
Mark Ramos
Argosy University
Assignment 2: LASA # 1: Literature Review Paper
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
Various discussions have been staged concerning the issue of poverty-environmental
degradation. Scholars have argued that there is strong connection between poverty and
environmental degradation, and therefore, they suggest that, if policy makers have ambitions of
mitigating this problem of environmental degradation, they first have to deal with poverty. Other
studies seem to suggest that, a direct link between these two variables is unfounded and cannot
guarantee ultimate answer to the problem. This paper is aimed at reviewing the existing literature
about these factors and how they are linked. The paper scrutinizes the economic and sociocultural factors which have led to increase in levels of poverty globally.
There are alarming rates of environmental degradation in the current society. The poor have
generally been linked to this problem. Scholarly reports tend to prove this fact which has
traditionally held to. For instance, the famous Bruntland Commission Report suggested that the
poverty state being experienced in the world is the central cause of the environmental problems
being faced globally. Interrelated study conducted by Jalal (1993), the chief of Asian
Development Bank’s department of environment, he suggested that population growth and
stagnant production has greatly led to environmental degradation. In the year 1992, World Bank
joined the consensus that poverty has led to environmental degradation, it released report that
poor families has turned to tree cutting for firewood and charcoal burning so as to meet their
short-term needs. Hence this trend has led to soil erosion and lose of soil fertility.
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
Other study tends to suggest that environmental degradation is caused by other multidimensional (Leach and Mearns, 1995) factors. These multi-dimensional factors include;
cultural, demographic and other variables. However, no further researches have been done to
show the link between this problem and the above variables.
This paper is aimed identifying the main connection between the environmental degradation
and poverty. There are increased levels of poverty and environmental degradation especially in
developing countries. Due to this reason, it has prompted me to initiate a research on this area. I
first need to evaluate and analyze the poverty and environmental degradation effects and then
suggest the policies which can be utilized to alleviate this problem.
The primary objective of paper is to critically analyze the literature on the povertyenvironmental degradation and try to come up with solutions to this problem. The other objective
is to give the overview on the current poverty levels in the world and discuss various definitions
which have been used globally to refer to poverty and environmental degradation. By the end of
the study, I will be able to provide guidelines for the definitions to be used on the study and also
come up with suggestion on how to deal with the menace.
This paper will base the analysis on the following natural resources which under threat of
degradation; forests, water, air and land. After identifying the natural resource, a cause, effect
and response analysis will be undertaken. In the research, we will first highlight the main agent,
then proceed to measure the degree in which they contribute to environmental degradation. This
will be followed by the analysis on the motivational factors which lead the agent to cause the
degradation. What makes the agent contribute to environmental degradation?
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
Through this approach, we intend to eliminate some myth on the environmental degradation
and add to already existing studies about this topic. This study will bring about proper finding on
whether it is true that poverty is the major cause of environmental degradation. The paper will
conclude by giving findings on the literature review and finally give recommendations for
subsequent research to be conducted thereafter.
Current world poverty levels stand at about 1.4 billion people who are living in acute
poverty, (Leonard 1993). This trend is slowly increasing every day, as the gap between poor and
the rich is widening, poor are getting poorer as rich get richer.
World Bank defines poverty in terms of household expenditures; it uses this as a tool to
measure the poverty levels among households. This measuring too is driven by the basic needs
considerations, those households which cannot afford basic needs they are said to be poverty
stricken. This definition has been criticized by various scholars who argue that the definition is
too narrow; they say that poverty has broader sets of indicators. Poverty indicators according to
World Bank poverty definition criticisers include; levels of literacy as well as infant mortality
rates. However, with numerous definitions and various poverty indicators, it is evident that there
are many people in the world those who are living in absolute poverty and other deplorable
conditions and therefore, there is a need to give the issue a serious attention.
This paper shall define poverty as vulnerability and inaccessibility indicators. By use of the
term vulnerability, the definition will be able to incorporate the class of people who find
themselves poor as a result of resource degradation. The term accessibility is also important as it
captures the category of people who are poor as they find themselves being restricted from
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
accessing the basic needs. They are poor by virtual of inability to access the much needed natural
Various definitions have been put across to describe environmental degradation, for
instance, in 1992, World Bank released a report which cited that deforestation, water shortage,
land degradation, air pollution and contamination to refer to degradation of environment. The
problem of water, air and soil pollution is experienced mostly in the developing countries.
However, the environmental degradation definition varies in different societies; for instance,
level of tolerance of air pollution by New York City is much lower than tolerance level of
Shanghai’s citizens. Therefore, the best way of defining environmental degradation globally is
by use of physical characteristics which are exhibited in particular environment.
Deforestation is one factor which has led to environmental degradation, the factor being a
problem itself; it has negative impacts to development as it derails growth of the society. This
factor affects ecology as well as economic development. The study will enable us determine the
main activities which are responsible for the massive deforestation and policies which can
change this trend. Our study identified logging, fuel wood collection and pastoral encroachment
and expansion as the major contribution to deforestation. For instance, Somanathan (1991) cited
commercial timber demands driven by government policies as the major cause to the
deforestation experienced in the Himalayas. Another study conducted by Anderson (1989)
suggested that logging has led environmental degradation in southern and central Africa.
Another research conducted by Davidson (1993) indicated that conversion of forests for
cattle ranching and as well as for cultivation purposes has led to major environmental
degradation. Poor people engage in activities like logging so as to sustain their lifestyle. In many
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
countries especially in developing world, for instance, Africa states people use firewood to for
cooking, and also there is cutting of trees to burn charcoal which they sell to cater for their
livelihood. Charcoal burning has negative impacts on the soil, they burn nutrients hence making
the land less productive, and this makes the soil unsuitable for cultivation. Unfertile land makes
poverty levels heighten as people will strive to live depending on the aids and donations from
well wishers.
Soil erosion and loss of water catchment areas; this is the problem which has led
environmental degradation. Fertile soil is swept away by running water; this makes people poor
as they cannot support their lifestyle. Air pollution which is caused by dumping of wastes
without treating it, some industries channels their waste products to the river without treating it.
Dumping has led to pollution of water; this has continually threatened the aquatic life which has
led to poverty in our society due to diseases which are brought about by the death caused by
polluted water. Industries need to treat their waste products before channeling it to the
environment, since we all have responsibility to take care of the environment we live in.
Studies suggest that, around 0.3-0.5 percent of the world’s land is annually lost to
environmental degradation. Dudal (1982) suggested that by the year 2000, this figure will have
approximately doubled itself if the trend is maintained. Major activities which have continually
led to land degradation entail soil exhaustion, desertification and salination.
It is evident that the literature review did not provide direct link between poverty and
environmental degradation. Although some research conducted by different scholars tried to
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
explain the link, it is clear that environmental degradation is contributed by various factors. For
instance, the study conducted by Dasgupta (1993), it proved that there was close link between
rural poverty, productivity and environmental resource base degradation and he suggests that
poverty is a major cause of land degradation. Other scholars like Jodha (1989) and Jeganathan
(1989), they both disagree with Dasgupta findings, and they suggest that, market and institutional
failure are contributors to the environmental degradation.
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
Anthony V Catanese; Indiana University, Bloomington. Indiana Center on Global Change and
World Peace. (1991). Rural Poverty and Environbmental Degradation in haiti. Bloomington,
Ind: Indiana Center on Global Change and World Peace.
Duraiappah, A. (1996). Poverty and Environmental Degradation: a literature review and
analysis. London, UK: Environmental Economics Programme, IIED.
Hollander, J. M. (2003). The Real Environmental Crisis: why Poverty, not Affluence, is the
Environments Number one Enemy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press,.
Janvry, A. D., & Garcia, R. (1992). Rural Poverty and Environmental Degradation in Latin
America. Rome: Technical Advisory Division.
Per Pinstrup-Andersen; Mark W Rosegrant; International Food Policy Research Institute. (2001).
The Unfinished Agenda: Perspectives on Overcoming Hunger, Poverty, and Environmental
Degration. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Pierre-Marc Johnson; Karel Mayrand; Marc Paquin; Canadian International Development
Agency. (2006). Governing Global Desertification: Linking Enironmental Degradation, Poverty
and Participation. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Rao, C. H. (1994). Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverety, and Environmental Degradation in
India. Delhi; New York: Oxford Univerrsity Press.
Running Head: Connection between poverty and environmental degradation
Swanson, T. M. (1996). The Economics of Environmental degradation: Tragedy for Commons.
Cheltenham, U.K.: Brookfield, Vt. : E. Elgar, .
Vainio, M., & UNCTAD. (1998). The Effect of Unclear Property Rights on Environmental
degradation and Increase in Poverty. Geneva, UN: Mar.
Yves Le Bouthillier; Miriam Alfie Cohen; José Juan González Márquez; Albert Mumma; Susan
L Smith; IUCN Academy of Environmental Law. (2012). Poverty Alleviation and environmental
Law. Cheltenham, UK: Northampton, MA : Edward Elgar.

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